Annex F (Informative) Encapsulated images as part of a DICOM message

The following remarks apply generally to communicating an encoded image within a message structure according to the DICOM Standard:

  1. In the course of including an encoded image in a DICOM message, the encoding is not changed. The encoded data stream is merely segmented and encapsulated according to the protocols of the DICOM Standard. After unpacking the DICOM message, the encoded data stream can be fully reconstructed at the receiving node.
  2. The object definition of the DICOM Standard is always determining format and other choices that a specific encoding implementation may offer. The encoded image must be consistent with the definition of the object of which the encoded image is part. For example:
    1. If the object is defined to contain 10-bit pixel data, it is assumed that the encoding process is one that accepts at least 10-bit data. Hence, there is no need for defining separate Transfer Syntaxes, e.g. for 8-bit or 12-bit implementations. Any 12-bit implementation is assumed to operate in an 8-bit process if the object is defined to contain 8-bit data.
    2. If the image of an object is interleaved, the encoding process must reproduce the interleaving.
  3. Specifications in the encoding file header must be consistent with the DICOM Message header, e.g. regarding the number of rows and columns.
  4. The byte order specification of an encoded file is not altered in the course of encapsulating it in a DICOM message.

F.1 ENCAPSULATED JPEG ENCODED IMAGES

The International Standards Organization (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG10) has prepared an International Standard, ISO/IS-10918-1 (JPEG Part 1) and International Draft Standard ISO/IS-10918-2 (JPEG Part 2), for the digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. This standard is collectively known as the JPEG Standard.

Part 1 of the JPEG Standard sets out requirements and implementation guidelines for the coded representation of compressed image data to be interchanged between applications. The processes and representations are intended to be generic in order to support the broad range of applications for color and grayscale still images for the purpose of communications and storage within computer systems. Part 2 of the JPEG Standard defines tests for determining whether implementations comply with the requirements of the various encoding and decoding processes specified in Part 1 of the JPEG Standard.

The JPEG Standard specifies lossy and lossless code processes. The lossy coding is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), permitting data compression with an adjustable compression ratio. The lossless coding employs differential pulse code modulation (DPCM).

The JPEG Standard permits a variety of coding processes for the coder and decoder. These processes differ in coding schemes for the quantified data and in sample precision. The coding processes are consecutively numbered as defined in the International Draft Standard ISO/IS-10918-2 (JPEG Part 2), and are summarized in Table F.1-1. The simplest DCT-based coding process is referred to as Baseline Sequential with Huffman Coding for 8-bit Samples.

Table F.1-1 JPEG Modes of Image Coding

No. Description Lossy LY / Lossless LL Non-Hierarchical NH / Hierarchical H Sequential S / Progressive P Transform Coding Accepted Bits
1 Baseline LY NH S DCT Huffman 8
2 Extended LY NH S DCT Huffman 8
4 Extended LY NH S DCT Huffman 12
14 Lossless LL NH S DPCM Huffman 2-16

The different coding processes specified in the JPEG Standard are closely related. By extending the capability of an implementation, increasingly more 'lower level' processes can also be executed by the implementation. This is shown in Table F.1-2 for Huffman Coding.

Inclusion of a JPEG-coded image in a DICOM message is facilitated by the use of specific Transfer Syntaxes that are defined in Annex A. Independent of the JPEG coding processes, the same syntax applies. The only distinction for different processes in the syntax is the UID value. Table F.1-5 lists the UID values in the Transfer Syntax for the various JPEG coding processes for reference.

Table F.1-2 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE LOSSY JPEG HUFFMAN CODING PROCESSES

* Coding process of column can execute coding process of row

Process 1 2 4
1 * * *
2 * *
4 *

Table F.1-5 Identification of JPEG Coding Processes in DICOM

Process 1 2 4
1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.50 1 baseline 1
1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.51 2,4 extended 1,2,4
1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.57 14 lossless NH 14
1.2.840.10008.1.2.4.70 14 Selection Value 1 lossless NH, first-order prediction

F.2 Encapsulated JPEG-LS encoded images

The International Standards Organization (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG10) has prepared an International Standard, ISO/IS-14495-1 (JPEG-LS Part 1), for the digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. This standard is known as the JPEG-LS Standard.

Part 1 of the JPEG-LS Standard sets out requirements and implementation guidelines for the coded representation of compressed image data to be interchanged between applications. The processes and representations are intended to be generic in order to support the broad range of applications for color and grayscale still images for the purpose of communications and storage within computer systems.

The JPEG-LS Standard specifies a single lossy (near-lossless) code process that can achieve lossless compression by constraining the absolute error value during encoding to zero. The lossless and lossy (near-lossless) coding is based on a predictive scheme with statistical modeling, in which differences between pixels and their surround are computed and their context modeled prior to coding, with a run-length escape mechanism. This scheme achieves consistently better compression in lossless mode than the lossless processes of JPEG defined in ISO 10918-1, with less complexity.

Though a different coding process from those specified in ISO 10918-1 is used, the syntax of the encoded bit stream is closely related.

A single JPEG-LS process is used for bit depths up to 16 bits.

Inclusion of a JPEG-LS coded image in a DICOM message is facilitated by the use of specific Transfer Syntaxes that are defined in Annex A.

F.3 Encapsulated JPEG 2000 encoded images

The International Standards Organization (ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG10) has prepared an International Standard, ISO/IEC-15444 (JPEG 2000), for the digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images. This standard is known as the JPEG 2000 Standard.

The JPEG 2000 Standard sets out requirements and implementation guidelines for the coded representation of compressed image data to be interchanged between applications. The processes and representations are intended to be generic in order to support the broad range of applications for color and grayscale still images for the purpose of communications and storage within computer systems.

Though a different coding process from those specified in ISO 10918-1 is used, the syntax of the encoded bit stream is closely related.

A single JPEG 2000 process is used for bit depths up to 16 bits.

Inclusion of a JPEG 2000 coded image in a DICOM message is facilitated by the use of specific Transfer Syntaxes that are defined in Annex A.