N.2.1.2 Mask

The Mask operation applies only to grayscale values.

The mask transformation may be applied in the case of multi-frame images for which other frames at a fixed frame position or time interval relative to the current frame may be subtracted from the current frame. Multiple mask frames may be averaged, and sub-pixel shifted before subtraction.

This transformation uses the Mask Module as used in the X-Ray Angiography Image Storage SOP Class, though it may be applied to any Image Storage SOP Instance that contains a multi-frame image.

In the case of X-Ray images, the subtraction is specified to take place in a space logarithmic to X-Ray intensity. If the stored pixel values are not already in such a space, an implementation defined transformation to such a space must be performed prior to subtraction. If a Modality LUT Module is present as well as a Mask Module, then the Modality LUT shall specify a transformation into such a logarithmic space, otherwise it shall not be present (even though a Modality LUT may be present in the referenced image(s) which shall be ignored).

Notes: 1. In the case of an XA or XRF image, if the Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) in the image is LOG, then even though a Modality LUT would be present in the image (to map pixel values back to linear to X-Ray intensity), no Modality LUT would be present in the presentation state (i.e. the Modality LUT would be an identity transformation) since log values are required for subtraction. See PS 3.3 C.8.7.1.1.2.

2. In the case of an XA or XRF image, if the Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) is LIN, then no Modality LUT would be present in the image, but a Modality LUT would need to be present in the presentation state since log values are required for subtraction.

3. In the case of an XA or XRF image, if the Pixel Intensity Relationship (0028,1040) in the image is DISP, then even though a Modality LUT may or may not be present in the image (to map pixel values back to linear to X-Ray intensity), a different Modality LUT would be present in the presentation state if the creator of the presentation state could create a transformation from DISP pixel values to a logarithmic space for subtraction, or the Modality LUT in the presentation state would be an identity transformation if the DISP pixel values were known to already be log values required for subtraction.

The result will be a signed value with a bit length one longer than the source frames.

When there is no difference between corresponding pixel values, the subtracted image pixel will have a value of 0.

If a pixel in the current frame has a greater value than in the mask frame, then the resulting frame shall have a positive value. If it has a lesser value, then the resulting frame shall have a negative value.