The Frame of Reference IE identifies the coordinate system that conveys spatial and/or temporal information of composite instances in a series.

When present, a Frame of Reference IE may be related to one or more series. In this case, it provides the ability to spatially or temporally relate multiple series to each other. In such cases, the series may share the UID of the Frame of Reference, or alternatively, a Registration SOP Instance may specify the spatial relationship explicitly, as a spatial transformation. A Frame of Reference IE may also spatially register a Frame of Reference to an atlas.